Testosterone therapy is often used to treat men with hypogonadism, where the body produces too little or no natural testosterone. Testosterone can be used as hormone replacement therapy and can be used to treat low libido in post-menopausal women. This form of therapy has also been reported to improve moods as well as energy. By 2018, annual revenue generated from testosterone drug sales in the United States is expected to reach 3.8 billion U.S. dollars. Testosterone use was among the highest in Canada and the United States as of 2011, with 385.5 monthly doses and 98.5 monthly doses per 1,000 population, respectively.
Transdermal application for testosterone for example, through application by skin patch, has become increasingly common. In Canada, Sweden, and the United States, transdermal testosterone application accounted for 97 percent, 78 percent, and 78 percent, respectively, as of 2011. Testosterone supplements can also be taken as a gel, mouth patch, and through injections or implants.
Individuals that enrolled in testosterone therapy prescription often had a prior prescription of hypertension or hyperlipidemia. As of 2014, 26.8 percent with hypertension and 26.5 percent diagnosed with hyperlipidemia enrolled in testosterone therapy prescription. Testosterone therapy has also been linked to adverse cardiovascular events. In individuals under or equal to 65 years of age, the myocardial infarction among men was at 5.27 per 1,000 per year prior to testosterone prescription. The post-prescription rate of myocardial infarction increased to 11.52 per 1,000 per year as of 2014.