The federal department responsible for corrections in Canada is the Correctional Service of Canada. Prisons are organized under the security levels of minimum, maximum, and medium. The majority of offenders are considered a medium security risk. Canada’s incarceration rate is just above the median for OECD countries with 114 people per 100,000 thousand behind bars in the nation. Since 2001, the federal incarceration rate has remained largely unchanged, with the rate for fiscal year 2017 standing at 49.29. The provincial and territorial incarceration rate, already higher, increased over the same period, with fiscal year 2017’s rate at 86.95.
The vast majority of convicted offenders in Canada receive sentences of less than a month in provincial and territorial custody as of 2015. Canada also allows an indeterminate sentence to persons deemed to be dangerous offenders, offenders who are thought to be a continued threat to society. With this sentence a person can be incarcerated indefinitely. Their first chance of parole occurs after seven years and is then reviewed every two years. In the 2017 fiscal year, 180 people were sentenced to either life or an indeterminate sentence.
Canada has two forms of parole: day parole and full parole. An inmate is eligible for day parole six months before being eligible for full parole. It is seen as a preparatory step for full parole as it grants the inmate permission to engage in community-based activities during the day, while returning to a community residence or correctional institution in the evening. Full parole grants the offender the ability to rejoin society and live in a private residence while still reporting to a parole officer periodically. Day parole is granted at a far higher rate than full parole. In fiscal year 2016, 77.9 of eligible offenders were granted day parole, while only 35.1 were granted full parole.
There has been much criticism of the overrepresentation of Aboriginal inmates in incarceration, who make up roughly 23 percent of the total incarcerated population but only make up 4 percent of Canada’s total population. Since 2001, Aboriginal admissions to provincial and territorial custody have increased by 50 percent.