Changes in domestic energy productionAs the threat of climate change poses a major challenge for the world, many countries have seen to reducing the production and use of fossil fuels where possible. Coal is the most emission-intensive fossil fuel and as such many governments have begun to phase out this energy source. This has resulted in EU coal production dropping to historic lows. Today, Germany and Poland are Europe’s biggest coal producers.
Oil is the main fuel for primary energy consumption in the EU. It is largely used as a motor fuel and to produce petrochemicals. Since resources in the North Sea have depleted, oil production in the European Union has also fallen significantly since the early 2000s. Outside of the EU, Russia and Norway are the leading producers on the continent.