Agriculture is a key activity for Nigeria's economy after oil. Agricultural activities provide livelihood for many Nigerians, whereas the wealth generated by oil reaches a restricted share of the population. According to a recent survey, some 70 percent of households in Nigeria participate in crop farming activities, while about 41 percent own or raise livestock. In rural areas more people participate in agricultural activities than in urban areas. Fishing is a less popular activity than farming. With a coastline of 850 kilometers, and many lakes, creeks, and rivers, fishing is practiced by about three percent of households. In the South South states, fishing is much more common than in others.
Among households, the most common crops in Nigeria are maize and cassava, which are grown by almost 50 percent of households. In addition, other widespread crops are Guinea corn, yam, beans, and millets. In quite a few plot-growing maize crops, households used to apply herbicides, while about half use inorganic fertilizers. Among all major crops grown by Nigerian households, herbicides, inorganic fertilizers, animal tractions, and organic fertilizers are the most common farming inputs. Apart from household farming activities, Nigeria is a global leader in agricultural production, as mentioned before. In large production, palm oil crops experienced a significant increase in the past two decades, reaching over one million metric tons in the last three years. Similarly, milled rice and soybean production has been growing as well. On the other hand, some of Nigeria's largest agricultural productions dropped, such as millet crops.
The population of Nigeria is growing at very high rates and the food demand is rising accordingly. Indeed, the Nigerian population is forecast to reach over 400 million people by 2050. Estimations published in 2019 show that by 2050 the consumption of livestock products is going to increase significantly. For instance, the consumption of milk might grow by over 260 percent, for eggs by 250 percent. Likewise, meat demand will reach high levels too. This scenario could have negative consequences on the food supply in the country. In recent years, the average share of the Nigerian population suffering from severe food insecurity has been rising. Between 2017 and 2019, about nine percent of people went for entire days without food, due to lack of money or other resources. In fact, the food CPI is increasing month by month in Nigeria.