India, located in South Asia, is the seventh-largest country in the world by area and the second-most populous country behind only China. As of 2016, it has a population forecast around 1.31 billion people, with the capital New Delhi estimated to be home to almost 17 million inhabitants. Despite the fact that India’s population has grown steadily, the fertility rate in the country is on the decline. The population increase can therefore be attributed to the improvement in infrastructure and health care which has led to an increase in the average life expectancy. However this average life expectancy is still well below that of the U.S. and China.
The Republic of India was established in January 1950 after it gained independence from the British Commonwealth in 1947 and proclaimed a new constitution. Since then India has existed as a federal republic consisting of 28 states and 7 union territories. The country’s parliamentary democracy is considered to be the largest democracy in the world and has become increasingly federal since the late 1990s as a result of social, political, and economic changes. India has no national language, but Hindi has the largest number of speakers and is also the official language used by the government.
India’s economy has been subject to considerable growth since its liberation in the early 1990s. India’s GDP growth rate has consistently been well above five percent for the last ten years. As a result of this growth, the country’s GDP was ranked the seventh largest in the world in 2015. This has also seen unemployment in India fall to less than nine percent in 2015.
The biggest industry in India is retail, which makes up almost a quarter of the nation’s GDP. Agriculture also remains a key industry with India producing products such as rice, wheat, cotton, and tea. The mining industry is also one of the major contributors to the economy of India. The country is one of the largest producers of iron ore, the fifth largest producer of bauxite, and the third largest producer of coal in the world. More recently, India has developed a reputation as a breeding ground for IT specialists and the relatively low wage levels make India a very popular destination for outsourcing. The IT industry in India is continuing to surge with over132 billion U.S. dollar’s worth of revenue generated in 2014/15, contributing a considerable amount to the country’s overall GDP.
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