What are the main sources of emissions in India?India’s economic growth has been fueled by coal ‐ the most carbon-intensive fossil fuel. Coal accounts for more than 70 percent of India's power mix, and in 2021 the country's coal combustion produced 1.8 GtCO₂. The sheer volume of CO₂ emitted by coal-fired power plants makes the electric power sector the largest source of GHGs in India. The second-largest contributor is the agriculture sector, which produces huge amounts of methane (CH₄) from rice paddies and cattle. CH₄ is a potent GHG with a 100-year global warming potential (GWP) roughly 30 times that of CO₂.
Climate Action in IndiaWith the impacts of the climate crisis looming ever closer, India’s president Narendra Modi has set his country the target of reaching net-zero carbon emissions by 2070 in a bid to limit global warming to 1.5 °C. For this to be achieved, President Modi outlined five key commitments at COP26, including meeting 50 percent of energy demand through renewable sources and reducing the carbon intensity of the economy by more than 45 percent by 2030.
However, while India’s 2070 target is seen as ambitious by some, it has also drawn criticism as it is much later than the 2050 target set by other polluting countries. India has also abstained from joining the Global Methane Pledge - which aims to reduce global CH4 emissions by at least 30 percent by 2030 - despite being the world’s second-largest methane emitter.