Morocco has a modest yet growing energy sector. The country’s power generation remained relatively limited in recent years, especially compared to other North African producers such as Algeria and Egypt. Because of that, Morocco relies on energy imports to satisfy the growing domestic demand. The country has traditionally been a net importer of electrical energy, although the net electricity imports have gradually declined. Morocco’s energy sector is, nevertheless, in continuous expansion. With a vast renewable capacity, the country is developing one of Africa’s largest clean energy sectors, mainly by exploiting wind, solar, and green hydrogen resources.
Great renewable potential
Morocco's renewable energy market is relatively large. In 2020, the renewable energy production in the country reached around 7,000 gigawatt hours, a considerable growth compared to 2,700 gigawatt hours in 2011. Moreover, the share of renewables in total power generation increased from around 11 percent in 2011 to 18 percent in 2020. Due to its favorable geographical features and location, the country has significant wind and solar power potential and ranks among the leading African countries in renewable energy capacity. Like several countries worldwide, Morocco faces the challenge of increasing capacity, which requires substantial infrastructural investments. The country has ambitious renewable energy targets, with clean energy accounting for around 50 percent of the power generation mix by 2030.
Predominance of fossil energy
Even though the country’s renewable market is rising, fossil fuels still dominate Morocco’s energy mix. In 2020, coal accounted for almost 70 percent of the power generated in the country, followed by renewables at 18 percent and natural gas at nine percent. Instead, oil had a limited contribution to the energy mix, as its share fell substantially from 26 percent in 2011 to less than two percent in 2020. Although to a lesser extent, coal was also the leading source of electricity in Morocco, making up nearly 40 percent of the production in 2019. However, reflecting the increasing role of renewables, around 16 percent of the electrical energy produced in the country originated from hydropower.
Rising energy consumption
The primary energy consumption in Morocco has gradually increased in recent years, growing from 0.7 exajoules in 2010 to 0.96 exajoules in 2021. Most power consumed in the country comes from fossil fuels, mainly oil and coal, while renewables account for less than 10 percent of the primary energy consumption. Access to energy is widespread in Morocco, as the electrification rate stood at 100 percent in 2020. Apart from households, the industrial sector is the largest electricity consumer in Morocco, using around 5.5 billion kilowatt hours of electricity in 2020. Agricultural activities instead consumed almost two billion kilowatt hours of electricity in the same year.
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