The high fertility rate, a rise in the population growth over the last years, and a continuous increasing life expectancy, has led to Namibia’s growing population. Due to the improved health and living conditions, life expectancy at birth in the country has increased by almost 10 years between 2005 and 2015.
Namibia was a German colony until the World War I, and later became part of South Africa territories until 1988, when South Africa agreed to end its administrative matters in the country. It officially gained its independence in March 1990, when the new constitution came into action. Nowadays, Namibia is a presidential republic divided into 14 regions with English as its official language. In addition, Namibia has 12 other languages that hold the recognized national language status.
The largest economic sector is the service industry, which accounts for more than half of the country’s GDP. The mining industry strongly contributes to Namibia’s GDP, the state being one the major countries to contribute to the production of uranium and diamonds globally. In 2016, Namibia produced 3,315 metric tons of uranium, and in 2015, it produced 8.7 percent share of the total value of diamonds produced worldwide, making these two industries the most profitable ones among the mining industries in the country. In 2016, Namibia also exported goods worth about 4.08 billion U.S. dollars, and imported goods worth approximately 6.84 billion U.S. dollars. Over the last decade, Namibia has reported a trade deficit, which reached its peak in 2014. As of 2016, Namibia's trade is still in the red, but recovering slowly.