Climate change impacts in IndonesiaBy 2030, it is expected that Indonesia will endure temperature increases of about 0.8 degrees Celsius. Furthermore, it is predicted that rainfall patterns will also change, with the rainy season ending earlier and lasting for a shorter period. Due to this, Sumatra and Kalimantan will experience wetter climates, while Java, Bali, and Nusa Tenggara will experience dryer seasons. Stronger and more frequent El Niño/La Niña events are also expected, which would exacerbate Indonesia’s issues with drought and flooding.
Climate change affects all economic sectors, but Indonesia's agricultural industry, which employs the majority of the country's workers, is usually the hardest hit as most poor people in the country work in this sector. Indonesia’s food security is projected to be in jeopardy, as crop production such as paddy will be more unpredictable. Studies showed that at least 50 percent of Indonesia’s total biodiversity is at risk, while 80 percent of its coral reefs are already in critical condition due to the warming sea surface temperatures and the rising sea level.
As a result of continued global warming, Indonesia may see an increase in the number of natural disasters, which would put more people at risk and increase economic losses due to property destruction. It was reported that Jakarta’s frequent flooding and other environmental issues exacerbated by climate change have prompted the Indonesian government to move its capital city to East Kalimantan.
Indonesia’s adaptation measures to climate changeTo anticipate the potential negative impacts of climate change, the Indonesian government has prepared a national action plan for climate change adaptation (RAN API) as the main reference moving forward. The implementation will focus on minimizing potential economic losses incurred by climate change, such as maintaining water supply and crop production in affected areas, protecting vulnerable locations, and managing its conservation zones.
According to Indonesia’s latest commitment to the Paris Climate Agreement, Indonesia has an emissions reduction target of 29 percent by 2030 with its own efforts, and 41 percent by 2030 with international assistance. To achieve its targets, Indonesia has increased its climate finance budget and created financing schemes by implementing a carbon tax of 30 Indonesian rupiah per kilogram of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e), or 2.10 U.S. dollars per ton of CO2e as of July 2022.
Indonesia is highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change, and climate finance has slowly gained a higher priority in the budget of the parliament. However, as Indonesia’s current energy policies and power generation continue to favor fossil fuels, the nation’s transition toward a low carbon electricity future seems to be still at a nascent stage, hence far from reaching its climate goals.