Wine, an alcoholic beverage produced by fermentation of grapes, is a staple of Italy and Italian culture. In fact, Italy was one of the countries with the highest number of liters consumed, and a per capita consumption of wine second only to Portugal. Wine is suitable for various convivial and social occasions, as a traditional Italian aperitif, for fairs and other special events, or simply for socializing with friends and acquaintances. Most often though, wine is consumed as an accompaniment to a meal. A wide range of wines exist to suit all taste preferences: commonly consumed wines are typically red or white, in their sparkling, semi-sparkling or still versions.
Additionally, certified wine production was an important segment of the Italian wine industry. Two main certifications exist: Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) and Protected Geographical Indication (PGI), which counted 408 and 118 products as of 2021. At the regional level, Piedmont, Tuscany and Veneto counted the greatest number of PDO and PGI wine products. PDO, particularly with regard to red wines, was the most valued and exported worldwide.
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