The fertility rate in Thailand plays a huge role in determining the prospective age structure which is hinted towards a decline in infant population and an increase in the ageing population. The ageing population could exceed that of the infant population, driving the Thai society to cope with possible workforce issues and population management. Compared to countries with the highest fertility rate, Thailand’s rate is approximately four times less than that of Niger’s fertility rate, where Thailand used to relatively be at the same level in the 1960s. With an exponential decline in fertility rate, the Thai society has entered the territory of becoming an aged society since 2003 where women will make up a slightly larger proportion compared to men in this ageing society.
With China having the highest number of households in the Asia Pacific region in 2021, Thailand ranked ninth with approximately 18.2 million households in the same year. The annual income among Thai households seemed to vary exceptionally, ranging from 35,000 baht to more than 875,000 Thai baht per year. The drastic differences in household income in Thailand were the result of current local administrations and long-term economic processes that had not benefited the rural population as much as the urban population. In 2020, it was forecasted that forty percent of Thai households would earn between 75,001 to 350,000 Thai baht per year. Regarding household expenditure in Thailand, most of the spending went towards consumer goods, with an average monthly spending amount of approximately 21.35 Thai baht per household in 2018.
Even though migration trends are rather unpredictable, Thailand has shown increasing migration in the past two and a half decades due to job search. Thailand has always been a hub for migration in the past which eventually led to an inward flow of migration that ultimately coincided with a 10-year economic boom from 1987 to 1996. Due to migration and the influx of foreign direct investments, this has also led to differences in wages and remittances between Thailand and its neighboring countries. The international population in Thailand now contributes to approximately seven percent of the entire population.
Thailand faces a decline in population growth rate while also facing lower fertility rates, coupled with a rise in the aging population. This triggers the governmental body to implement population control policies as well as handling prospective workforce issues through education and migration policies, which will likely offset potential adverse effects that the population structure may have on the Thai society and the projected decline in GDP growth in the coming years.