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Education in Romania - statistics & facts

The Romanian education system consists of the following stages: early education, primary education, secondary education (which includes secondary lower education or gymnasium and secondary superior education), the tertiary non-university education, the higher education and adult education. Since early education is optional, compulsory school normally begins around the age of six, starting with primary education, followed by lower secondary education, and the first two years of upper secondary education.

Educational infrastructure

In 2019, there were over seven thousand educational units in Romania. However, despite outstanding academic performances and university rankings, the educational infrastructure remains a problem in rural areas. In 2020, nearly four out of ten Romanians were of the opinion that educational facilities in rural areas were fairly bad. As a result, in December 2020, the Ministry of Public Works, Development and Administration announced that 51 new financing contracts worth 219 million Romanian lei were signed though the Regional Operational Program for 2014 to 2020. These contracts will aim at modernizing the educational infrastructure in order to increase the quality of life in the educational environment for both students and professors. When it comes to famous Romanian universities, the Ad Astra association of Romanian researchers annually publishes a report based on international academic rankings for Romanian universities. According to their latest report, the best university in 2020 was Babeș-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, followed by the University of Bucharest and the Politechnica University from Bucharest.


According to Romanian law, national education should benefit from a financing worth six percent of the country’s GDP. However, this amount was never achieved over the last years. The proposed budget for education in 2021 totaled only 2.55 percent of Romania’s GDP. This represented a decrease of 6.76 percent compared to the share allocated in 2020. Additionally, representatives from the Ministry of Education and Research claimed that the proposed budget for education in 2021 was the largest one, in absolute values, in the last 30 years. Since the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak in Romania in March 2020, it became clear that the online education system required a higher budget. In other words, it is necessary not only to implement higher protection measures in schools but also to support online learning programs, as well as to ensure trainings related to online learning platforms for educational staff.


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