In 2020, Poland's extreme poverty rate amounted to 5.2 percent, i.e., one percent more than in 2019. The category of minimum subsistence means the level of meeting needs, which hinders survival and poses a threat to human psychophysical development.
Economic poverty in Poland
In 2020, the extreme poverty rate in Poland was 5.2 percent, which is one percentage point higher than in 2019. On the other hand, the relative poverty rate reached 11.8 percent in 2020, i.e., more than one percentage point less than in the previous year, which is related to the decline in average household expenditure caused by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The increase in extreme poverty observed in 2020 is associated with the imposition of the economy lockdown and social contact restrictions from March 2020 in response to the COVID-19 outbreak in Poland. In comparison, Poland has one of the lower rates of people at risk of poverty or social exclusion in the CEE region. In 2020, 17 percent of Poles were in the range of this indicator, while the EU average was close to 22 percent.
Households in poverty
The extent of poverty varied markedly by socioeconomic group. In 2020, the most vulnerable to economic poverty (i.e., extreme, relative, and statutory poverty) were households living on so-called unearned sources other than pensions and farmers' households. In 2020, extreme poverty in these two groups affected almost 14 percent of people. Education is one of the most important factors differentiating poverty risk. In general, the higher the education, the lower the poverty risk. Thus, in 2020, almost 12 percent of people from households with at most lower secondary education experienced extreme poverty. In comparison, among families with higher education, the percentage of people living in households with expenses below the extreme poverty line was about two.
Economic poverty also depended on household type, including the number of children. Families with at least three children up to the age of 25 were the most exposed to economic poverty.
The highest value of economic poverty rates is recorded among children and youth under 18 years of age. The reported extreme poverty range for this age group in 2020 was almost six. Older people (aged 65 and over) experienced economic poverty relatively least often.
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Central Statistical Office of Poland. (June 30, 2021). Poverty rate in Poland from 2008 to 2020 [Graph]. In Statista. Retrieved May 16, 2022, from https://www.statista.com/statistics/1130472/poland-poverty-rates/
Central Statistical Office of Poland. "Poverty rate in Poland from 2008 to 2020." Chart. June 30, 2021. Statista. Accessed May 16, 2022. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1130472/poland-poverty-rates/
Central Statistical Office of Poland. (2021). Poverty rate in Poland from 2008 to 2020. Statista. Statista Inc.. Accessed: May 16, 2022. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1130472/poland-poverty-rates/
Central Statistical Office of Poland. "Poverty Rate in Poland from 2008 to 2020." Statista, Statista Inc., 30 Jun 2021, https://www.statista.com/statistics/1130472/poland-poverty-rates/
Central Statistical Office of Poland, Poverty rate in Poland from 2008 to 2020 Statista, https://www.statista.com/statistics/1130472/poland-poverty-rates/ (last visited May 16, 2022)