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Demographics of Poland - statistics & facts

Poland's demographic situation has been gradually deteriorating since the beginning of the transition period in 1989. By 2100, the population is projected to shrink by 60 percent compared to 2017. The Polish government has been trying to combat this problem with pro-natalist and pro-social policies for many years. Despite this, the Family 500+ program launched in 2016, extended maternity and parental leaves, social benefits, and support for families with many children introduced by local governments have not translated into an increase in fertility, and thus an increase in Poland's population.

Characteristics of Polish society

Since 2010, Poland's population has been steadily declining. A significant decrease was recorded in 2020, affected by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The unfavorable mortality situation and a low birth rate contributed to the record low level of natural increase. During this period, Poland diminished by 118 thousand people. Most of the population lives in urbanized areas, and the Mazowieckie Voivodeship is the most populous region. It is also a region experiencing a year-on-year increase in its population.
The country has 1.26 million more women than men, and the average age of women was more than three years higher than that of men in 2020. Poland, like other European countries, is facing an aging population problem. The life expectancy for a newborn born in 2020, regardless of gender, was 76.5 years. In comparison, the median age for women in 2020 was over 16 years higher than in 1950.

Causes of Poland's demographic problems

One of the significant demographic problems is the low fertility rate. Births are the key factor influencing the number and structure of the population. A decreasing number of women of childbearing age will affect the future number of births. This is mainly due to young people postponing the decision to start a family and then having fewer children or even living alone. Since 1990, the fertility rate has been below two, which does not guarantee a simple replacement of generations. In 2003, only 351 thousand children were born – the fewest in the postwar period. In 2020, the number of live births declined by approximately 20 thousand compared to the previous year. After 1990, changes caused the highest female fertility rate to shift from the 20-24 age group to the 30-34 age group. A significant increase in fertility occurs in the oldest age groups. Between 1995 and 2020, the number of women of reproductive age declined by 12 percent. The low birth rate is not the only problem of Poland's demographic crisis. It is also exacerbated by mortality, life expectancy, marriage breakdown, and migration.

Interesting statistics

In the following 8 chapters, you will quickly find the 71 most important statistics relating to "Demographics of Poland".


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