EU-27 urban population exposed to air pollution concentrations above standards 2021

Share of the urban population of the European Union exposed to air pollution levels above EU standards and WHO guidelines in 2021, by pollutant

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Release date

November 2023

Region

EU

Survey time period

2021

Supplementary notes

*Figures are below 1%.
EU air quality standards for each pollutant:
PM2.5 — population exposed to concentrations above 25 µg/m3.
PM10 — population exposed to daily concentrations exceeding 50 µg/m3 for more than 35 days per year.
O3 — population exposed to maximum daily 8-hour mean concentrations exceeding 120 µg/m3 for more than 25 days per year.
NO2 — population exposed to annual concentrations above 40 µg/m3.
These criteria are based on the limit values (for PM and NO2) and target values (for O3) set in the Ambient Air Quality Directive 2008/50/EC.

WHO guidelines for each pollutant:
PM2.5 — population exposed to annual concentrations above 5µg/m3.
PM10 — population exposed to annual concentrations above 15µg/m3
O3 — population exposed to maximum daily 8-hour mean concentrations exceeding 100µg/m3 for more than 3-4 days per year.
NO2 — population exposed to annual concentrations above 10µg/m3.
These criteria are based on the air quality guideline values defined by the World Health Organization in 2021.

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