Criminality index score APAC 2020, by subregion and crime

Most prevalent criminal markets by index score in Asia and Oceania in 2020, by subregion and crime

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Release date

September 2021


Asia, Australia and Oceania, APAC

Survey time period


Special properties

based on literature review, data collection, scoring, regional expert verification, and calibration

Supplementary notes

The criminality index score takes two subcomponents into consideration:

Prevalence of criminal markets: value considerations, reach considerations (e.g. the non-monetary impact of each market)
Structure/influence of criminal actors: mafia-style groups, criminal networks, state-embedded actors, foreign actors

The index functions on a scale of 1 to 10, with a score of 1 signifying the best possible scenario of non-existent criminality, whereas a score of 10 indicates that criminality is part of every aspect of a society. The scoring thresholds are as follows:

1-3: non existent to little influence
4-5: moderate influence
6-7: significant influence
8-10: severe influence

On the data collection process, the source states the following:
A process of literature review, analysis and verification was undertaken to determine criminality and resilience scores for each country. Data collection encountered a number of challenges, including availability, reliability, uniformity and compatibility. The GI-TOC Index team endeavoured to overcome such challenges by cross-checking data sources where available and identifying proxy indicators, as needed.

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