Poland - Statistics & Facts

Poland is a country in central Europe, sharing borders with Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and Lithuania to the north. It is one of the most populous countries in the European Union, ranking among the leading ten countries with the largest population. Poland's population seems to be stable and it is estimated to remain stable over the next few years. Warsaw is Poland’s capital as well as its largest city.

Poland’s history has been mainly marked by turbulent and violent times. At the start of World War II, Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union which led to the death of more than six million Polish citizens, most of them Jewish, and the destruction of its economy. Today, Poland reports the fifth-largest Jewish population in Europe.

In 2004 - five years after joining NATO and fifteen years after the end of communist rule - , Poland became a member of the European Union. Since then, it has attempted to restructure its economy and establish political freedom. In 2009, amidst the global financial crisis, Poland was the only country in Europe to experience economic growth. GDP and GDP per capita in Poland are estimated to steadily increase between 2016 and 2020. The success in creating a market economy in Poland has attracted foreign investment, and Germany is now Poland’s most important export and import partner.

Despite an extensive amount of farming land, the agriculture sector in Poland is largely inefficient. The agriculture economic sector accounted for approximately 2.6 percent of GDP in 2016. Still, Poland has managed to keep the unemployment rate below the European Union average, with the majority of employed people working in Services.

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