According to Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS), one of the largest providers of health insurance in the United States, the concussion rate among U.S. members in 2015 was 4.3 per 1,000 members. Concussion rates are higher among males than among females and younger people are more prone to concussion than older people. From 2010 to 2015, BCBS found that members aged 15 to 17 years experienced concussions at a rate of 18.8 per 1,000 members, compared to 2 per 1,000 members among those aged 30 to 34 years. One reason behind these gender and age differences could be the link between sports and concussion. During the 2013/2014 school year it was estimated that boys high school football players had concussions at a rate of 33 per 10,000 players, the highest rate of any high school sport, and double that of the sport with the second highest rate, girls soccer. Furthermore, a 2017 survey by Statista found that 85 percent of U.S. consumers thought concussions were the biggest health risk associated with playing football.
Severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI) can cause similar, but more serious symptoms to a concussion, but can also result in permanent brain damage that requires physical or speech therapy, or even death. In 2013, TBI accounted for approximately 10 percent of all injury-related emergency department visits, and 29 percent of all injury deaths. At this time, unintentional falls were the leading cause of TBI leading to hospitalization, followed by unintentional motor-vehicle crashes. As of 2016, around 26 percent of those who had a moderate or severe TBI improved within five years, while 22 percent died.