Share of people psychologically highly distressed in Finland 2018, by education level

Share of people with significant psychological distress according to the MHI-5 scales* in Finland in 2018, by level of education

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Release date

May 2019



Survey time period


Number of respondents

10,000 respondents

Age group

20 years and older

Method of interview


Supplementary notes

The source provides additional information concerning the survey questions: " Psychological distress was measured using the MHI-5 question series instrument. MHI-5 consists of five questions that assess anxiety, depression, and positive mental state. The answer is set on a continuum, where the one extremity reflects psychological distress and the other positive mental state. 'How much time during the last 4 weeks have you: Choose one option from every row.' The sub-questions in the question series were a) felt very nervous, b), felt so down in the dumps, nothing could cheer you up c) felt calm and peaceful d) felt down-hearted and depressed e) been very happy. The answer options were 1) all of the time, 2) most of the time, 3) a good bit of time, 4) some of the time, 5) a little of the time, 6) none of the time. In each of the questions, an answer was given on the scale 1 to 6. In order to calculate the final points, in the questions c) and e) the scale is reversed, after which the score points are summed together (score sum between 5-30) and is transformed into scale 0-100. Psychological distress can be reported as a continuous variable or the score of 52 can be used as cut point, when a person scoring 52 or below shows clinically significant amounts of psychological distress symptoms. In this figure, being observed are respondents scoring at most 52 scaled point sum."

The source provides the following information: "Information is collected by a mail and online questionnaire.
The respondents are at least 20 years old and have permanent residency in Finland. There is no upper age limit.
The questionnaire is sent to people drawn by random sampling from the data of the Population Register Centre.
The questionnaire form is available in Finnish, Swedish, Russian and English. The survey is carried out annually at the national level (sample size 10,000). This allows processing the findings only on the national level, not by any smaller regions.
Once every four years, the sample size is expanded to enable following the changes by counties at a rough level (sample size 3,300/county)."

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