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Total primary energy consumption in the U.S. 1995-2019

In 2019, the United States consumed approximately 100.2 quadrillion British thermal units of primary energy -- a slight increase from the previous year. Primary energy refers to energy harvested directly from natural resources and includes both fossil fuels and renewable sources.

Consumption strong and steady

With the second-highest primary energy consumption in the world, the United States has had a consistently strong demand for energy over the past two decades. As energy consumption increases, carbon emissions are also increasing, spurring many people in the United States to support speeding up the transition to clean energy. One proposed solution would be to separate the growth of the economy from energy production so that climate change goals could be addressed more directly.

Energy market shifts

Fluctuations since the global financial crisis and into the 2010s have resulted in part from destabilized fossil fuel markets. A surge and crash in international oil prices led the United States to invest more in domestic extraction of shale oil and natural gas, as well as renewable energy technologies. Subsequent overproduction of shale oil caused prices to rise and fall again drastically, but the market has been recovering since 2016, with consumption now higher than ever.

Total U.S. primary energy consumption from 1995 to 2019 (in quadrillion British thermal units)*

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Release date

March 2020


United States

Survey time period

1995 to 2019

Supplementary notes

* All figures are estimates.
Includes coal coke net imports and electricity net imports, which are not displayed separately.
The source includes the following energy sources in the primary energy consumption category: coal, coal coke imports, petroleum products supplied, including natural gas plant liquids and crude oil burned as fuel, dry natural gas, excluding supplemental gaseous fuels, nuclear electricity, conventional hydroelectricity, geothermal electricity, geothermal heat pump energy and geothermal direct use energy, solar thermal and PV electricity, solar thermal direct use energy, wind electricity, wood and wood-derived fuels, fuel ethanol and biodiesel, losses and co-products from the production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel, electricity imports

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