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Primary energy consumption by country 2019

China is the largest consumer of primary energy in the world, using some 141.7 exajoules in 2019. The majority of primary energy fuels is derived from fossil fuels. China’s primary energy mix has shifted from a dominant use of coal to an increase of natural gas and renewable sources. Globally, primary energy consumption has increased over the last decade, but it is expected to experience the largest growth in emerging economies like the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China).

What is primary energy?

Primary energy is taken directly from natural resources such as crude oil, coal, and wind. For example, crude oil is refined into a secondary fuel, such as gasoline or diesel, that can be used directly. The fuels that are used for primary energy are called primary fuels. A country’s total primary energy supply is a measure of the country’s primary energy sources. On the other hand, end use energy is directly consumed by the user and includes electricity, gasoline, and natural gas.

Leading countries in primary energy consumption worldwide in 2019

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Release date

June 2020



Survey time period


Supplementary notes

Petroleum is measured in million metric tons, all other energy sources in million metric tons of oil equivalent.

In this statistic, primary energy comprises commercially traded fuels only.

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