With approximately 127 million acres of land, around 52 percent is suitable for agriculture. Although crop cultivation in Thailand is very diverse, rice has always been the breath of the Thai agricultural society and has played a major role in the country’s tradition. The country’s rice production is among the top ten countries in the Asia Pacific region, following Vietnam in recent years. Apart from rice cultivation, crop plantation in the country has also extended to rubber, sugarcane, cassava and other major crops including shallots, potatoes, garlic and onions.
Compared to crop cultivation, the livestock subsector is relatively small. Beef has been a small part of the overall livestock category. Cattle and buffalo were mainly used to assist in rice cultivation in the past and was increasingly farmed after 1985 as a response to food trends. Poultry production in Thailand is among the top ten in the Asia Pacific region. Apart from livestock farming, aquaculture has also served as a crucial part of Thai food security and contributes even more so to GDP than livestock farming. However, poor financial returns to aquaculture produce still limits expansion of agriculture in this area.
Thailand has a comparative advantage in the agricultural sector which contributes to the value of exports compared to other countries in South East Asia. Although there are some signs on economic deceleration in this area, there has been measures to push the overall agriculture sector into an era of smart farming, which is part of a Thailand 4.0 technology incorporated society, which will further implement marketing, educational institutions and research in order to be able to control all aspects of crop cultivation, livestock farming and aquaculture.