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Percentage of U.S. Americans without health insurance by ethnicity 2010-2019

In the first half of 2019, over 27 percent of the Hispanic population in the United States didn't have health insurance, up from a historical low of 19.3 percent in 2016. In 2019, the national average was 9.5 percent and Asian Americans had the lowest rate at 7.4 percent. White Americans also had a below average rate at 9.8 percent, whereas 13.6 percent of Black Africans had no health insurance.

Impact of the Affordable Care Act

The Affordable Care Act (ACA), also known as Obamacare, was enacted in March 2010, which expanded the Medicaid program, made affordable health insurance available to more people and aimed to lower health care costs by supporting innovative medical care delivery methods. Though it was enacted in 2010, the full effects of it weren’t seen until 2013, when government-run insurance marketplaces such as were opened. The number of Americans without health insurance fell significantly between 2010 and 2015, but began to rise after 2016.

What caused the change?

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 has played a role in decreasing the number of Americans with health insurance, because the individual mandate was repealed. The aim of the individual mandate (part of the ACA) was to ensure that all Americans had health coverage and thus spread the costs over the young, old, sick and healthy by imposing a large tax fine on those without coverage.

Percentage of people without health insurance in the United States from 2010 to June 2019, by ethnicity

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Release date

May 2020


United States

Survey time period

2010 to June 2019

Supplementary notes

Black refers to people who reported Black or African American and did not report any other race. Asian refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race. Hispanic is considered an ethnicity, not a race. Hence Hispanic people can be of any race.
The source adds the following information: "data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian non-institutionalized population."
*January to June 2019.

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Statistics on "Americans without health insurance"

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