Waste is broadly categorized as municipal, industrial and hazardous waste, based on their origin and composition. Specific rules and compliances are to be followed for safe handling and disposal of the various types of waste. It is well known that the cities are huge contributors of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and India has one of the largest landfills in Ghazipur. Ideally, the landfills must comply with stringent regulations so as not to contaminate the soil, land and air in and around its vicinity. Most biomedical waste is non-infectious and is managed as MSW. On the other hand, hazardous and infectious biomedical waste should not be mixed with other waste and must be treated in dedicated facilities.
With an increasing population, there is an increase in the generation of waste. Consequently, this creates challenges in its management. Despite a door-to-door collection of segregated waste in many cities, India’s ill-equipped sorting and disposal facilities make it not so efficient. In 2016, MoEFCC launched the Integrated Waste Management System to ease waste management, and end-to-end app in line with the government’s attempt to digitizing the economy.
Recovery from waste is a crucial element in waste management as it reduces the volume of waste and prevents overloading landfills. The informal recycling industry plays a major role in waste management and provides employment opportunities to people in lower economic classes. With increasing electronic waste and plastic waste, it is important to encourage recovery while following the 3R’s – reduce, reuse and recycle. Community participation had increased in many regions across the country for efficient waste management. With growing public awareness and participation in the recent years, waste was being minimized at the source and citizens were becoming more environmentally conscious.
The Swachh Bharat Mission, a nation-wide campaign was introduced by the government to clean up the streets, roads and infrastructure in cities, towns and rural areas. The mission was enforced for a period of five years starting in 2014. This ensured proactivity from citizens in being part of the solution to waste management. However, during an annual Swachh Bharat survey it was seen that most of the citizens saw a lack of commitment from the municipalities.