Indonesia is home to diverse ethnic and social groups, ranging from rural hunter-gatherers to modern urban elites. There are over 300 local languages in Indonesia. Before the Dutch united the archipelago in around 1900, Indonesia was home to many sophisticated kingdoms. In 1945, after Japan’s wartime occupation ended, independence was proclaimed in Indonesia, and finally, following an armed struggle in 1949, the Dutch were able to transfer sovereignty.
Rich natural resources and political stability in recent years have led to an increase in investments and a more stable economy. However, despite the rapid increase in gross domestic product and GDP per capita over the past decade and a declining inflation rate, the latter is still quite high in Indonesia, compared to those of industrialized countries. On a positive note, Indonesia’s growing economy is a result of a trade surplus achieved in recent years, and decreasing unemployment.