Not all electric vehicles are all-electric vehiclesBy 'electric vehicles', the Government referred to electrified vehicles. These include hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), battery electric vehicles (BEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). Since HEV primarily rely on their internal combustion engines, some do not consider them electric vehicles despite their enhanced fuel efficiency.
HEV represent the great majority of electrified cars in Japan and are considered by many for their next car purchase. Their overwhelming appeal is affordable prices, naturally low fuel expenses, easy maintenance, and an environmental-friendly image. The issue with the other three electrics is not only their price or lack of infrastructure. Backed by subsidies, both have improved, but it is also the share of carbon-based fuels in Japan's energy supply. Still, life-cycle assessments of PHEV, FCEV, and especially BEV showed lower GHG emissions than other comparable vehicles regardless of the electricity mix.