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Length of reign of British monarchs from the House of Plantagenet 1216-1485

With the end of King John's reign, and the loss of the area of Anjou in France, the ruling house in Britain became known as the House of Plantagenet. Succeeding the Normans, Henry III was crowned King of England at the age of nine, making him the first Plantagenet monarch. There had been a claim to the throne by the King of France, Louis VIII, during the First Barons' War, although this was later renounced this claim after his excommunication. The early Plantagenet period was marked by much civil unrest in the British Isles, as the issues of civil rights (highlighted by the Magna Carta) and national identity (in Ireland, Scotland and Wales) arose, particularly during the reigns of Edward I and II.

The Hundred Years War

The Hundred Years War (which lasted for 116 years, from 1337 until 1453) was a series of wars fought between the Houses of Plantagenet (England) and Valois (France), over the control of France. Notable events from this war include the Battles of Agincourt and Orleans, and the involvement of Joan of Arc. The War was overseen by four separate English Kings, and while the English proved triumphant in many early stages of the war, France's ability to muster armies and resources proved decisive in their overall victory, and the English crown was never able to regain its dominions on mainland Europe after this point.

The Wars of the Roses

The loss of the war against France caused unrest in England, and many nobles who had become dissatisfied at the cost of the war and the loss of their lands in France turned their anger towards the monarchy. The House of Plantagenet split into rival factions, and Henry VI of the House of Lancaster (whose symbol was the red rose), had to defend the crown from rival nobles (who also claimed he was not mentally fit to rule) supporting Edward IV of the House of York (white rose). The war was fought sporadically between 1455 and 1487, and ultimately saw the execution or death of all Plantagenet Kings, including that of King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 (Richard III's body was not discovered until 2015, where it was found buried under a car park in Leicester). Following the death of Richard III, Henry VII (of Lancastrian descent) became the King of England, and married Elizabeth of York, uniting both factions and creating the House of Tudor, which would go on to rule England for the next two centuries.

Length of each English monarch of the House of Plantagenet (including the Houses of Lancaster and York) from 1216 to 1485

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Sources

Release date

July 2019

Region

United Kingdom (England)

Survey time period

1216 to 1485

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Statistics on "The British Royal Family (UK)"

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