Median deal size of IPO in the U.S. 2005-2018

The median initial public offering (IPO) in the United States was 108 million U.S. dollars in 2018. This is down from the previous year, but still above the five year average. This figure gives an idea of how willing speculators in the United States are to invest in a company going public, which is the process of being listed on a stock exchange for the first time.

Who goes public?

Most IPOs come from relatively new firms that have grown quickly. For example, the Alibaba Group Holding IPO was the largest IPO in the United States. This firm is a relatively new tech company overseen by Jack Ma, who had already generated billions in private funding before going public. However, Visa’s 2008 IPO occurred 50 years after the company’s founding, when it had millions of credit cards in circulation. Still, the company had generated enough enthusiasm for its IPO to raise a record amount of money.

Over and under the median

The megadeals such as the Alibaba IPO are rare, though there is an increasing number of startup companies valued at one billion U.S. dollars. While these raise the median value, the worst IPOs lower it. While a successful IPO can lead to huge gains in valuation, the IPOs with the lowest return lose over half the company’s value. For this reason, companies are willing to pay significant underwriter fees to ensure a smooth first day in the public markets.

Median deal size of IPO in the United States from 2005 to 2018

Median deal size in million U.S. dollars
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Release date

January 2019


United States

Survey time period

2005 to 2018

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Statistics on "Initial public offerings in the United States"

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