One of the reason for the population decrease is the constantly falling number of births in recent years. Between 2010 and 2018, this figure declined from roughly 550 thousand to 441 thousand infants. In 2019, 7,2 children were born per 1,000 inhabitants, about two babies less than in 2002. The highest birth rate was recorded in the Southern regions, while the lowest value was registered in the Center of Italy. Data on the average age of mothers in the different regions show that the South and the Islands of Italy had the youngest mothers nationwide.
A lower birth rate is also linked to an aging population. Data on the age distribution of the Italian population show that the share of people aged up to 14 years dropped steadily. Subsequently, the percentage of the population aged 65 years and older grew, exceeding the young population by about ten percent. In 2020, the average age of Italians was estimated to be 45.7 years. Forecasts made in the same year reveal that the median age will increase in the future. In fact, it could reach 53.6 years by 2050.
Further relevant changes in population figures are visible in the marriage rate and family structures. Nowadays, fewer people are getting married in Italy compared to previous years. Additionally, the average size of households shows a declining trend. It turns out that Italy has fewer and smaller families than before. Moreover, the number of single-person households is increasing. Finally, families without a nucleus represent a very widespread household structure.