The results of a recent governmental survey show that about 97 percent of Nigerians did not have any health insurance in 2018. People with health insurance mainly had employer-based coverage, whereas privately purchased insurance was uncommon. Nevertheless, Nigeria's Federal Ministry of Health established the National Programme on Immunization, which aims to increase immunization and vaccination rates. A health survey conducted in Nigeria collected data on the vaccination coverage of very young children. The rates exceeded 50 percent for almost all basic vaccinations like BCG, hepatitis B, DPT-Hep B-Hib, polio, measles, and the pneumococcal vaccine.
A major serious threat for health in Nigeria is malaria. According to the World Health Organization, malaria is the main cause of maternal mortality and poor child development. Both issues represent critical realities in West Africa. Maternal mortality in Nigeria is the third highest on the whole continent, with over nine hundred deaths per 100,000 live births. West African countries also register some of the highest rates of stunted and wasted children in the world. About nine percent of children living in West and Central Africa had a weight too low for their height. These regions had the second highest percentage of wasted children worldwide, after South Asia. Wasting is a predictor of infant mortality, caused by a large food shortage, often accompanied by diseases.