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Demographics of Spain - Statistics & Facts

Demography is defined as the statistical study of the human population with a special focus on population size, population density, and composition.

The population of Spain amounted to approximately 47 million people in 2019 after many years of decline and was projected to decrease by nearly one million by 2023. One of the reasons for this decrease might be related to the fact that Spain has the lowest fertility rate in the European Union, with barely 1.34 children born per woman, according to the latest reports. During the last ten years, the country showed a continuous population density of approximately 93 inhabitants per square kilometer – a figure far from the European average, which stood at over 121 inhabitants per square kilometer in 2018.

The latest results show that there were more deaths in Spain than births in 2018, with figures reaching over 474 thousand deaths versus 370 thousand newborns. In 2018, the fertility rate was highest in the Spanish autonomous city of Melilla, with women of this region giving birth to an average of 2.31 children. In contrast, the Canary Islands ranked as the Spanish region that featured the lowest fertility rate in the Mediterranean country, with the average woman having approximately one child during the same period.

One of the key points to balance out this population shrinkage in Spain is immigration - after many years of losing its foreign population, Spain’s immigration figures finally started to pick up in 2015, with the number of people that moved to the Mediterranean country surpassing the number of foreigners that decided to leave. As can be seen in the latest records, Moroccans ranked first as the foreign nationality that most relocated to Spain in 2018, closely followed by Colombians and Venezuelans.

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Demographics of Spain

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Births, deaths, marriages



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