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Demographics of Spain - Statistics & Facts

Demography is defined as the statistical study of the human population with a special focus on population size, population density, and composition.

The population of Spain amounted to approximately 47.15 million people in 2021 after many years of decline and was projected to increase by nearly one million by 2026. One of the reasons for the decrease in past years might be related to the fact that Spain has the second lowest fertility rate in the European Union, with barely 1.23 children born per woman, according to the latest reports. During the last ten years, the country showed a continuous population density of approximately 93 inhabitants per square kilometer – a figure far from the European average, which stood at over 111 inhabitants per square kilometer in 2018.

The latest results show that there were more deaths in Spain than births in 2020, with figures reaching over 501 thousand deaths versus 339 thousand newborns. In 2020, the fertility rate was highest in the Spanish autonomous city of Melilla, with women of this region giving birth to an average of 1.67 children. In contrast, the Canary Islands ranked as the Spanish region that featured the lowest fertility rate in the Mediterranean country, with the average woman having approximately lees than one child during the same period.

One of the key points to balance out this population shrinkage in Spain is immigration - after many years of losing its foreign population, Spain’s immigration figures finally started to pick up in 2015, with the number of people that moved to the Mediterranean country surpassing the number of foreigners that decided to leave. As can be seen in the latest records, Colombians ranked first as the foreign nationality that most relocated to Spain in 2020, closely followed by Moroccans and Venezuelans.

Interesting statistics

In the following 3 chapters, you will quickly find the 41 most important statistics relating to "Demographics of Spain".

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