Official international reserves by country 2018

International reserves and foreign currency liquidity in selected countries worldwide as of August 2018 (in billion U.S. dollars)

by M. Szmigiera, last edited May 13, 2019
Official international reserves by country 2018 Of all the countries in the world, China had, by far, the largest international reserves in August 2018, with 3.40 trillion U.S. dollars in reserves and foreign currency liquidity. Japan was the only other country with over a trillion U.S. dollars in reserves, with a total of 1.32 trillion U.S. dollars.
Why do countries hold reserves?

A simple explanation for China’s accumulation of foreign currency could be its consistently positive and substantial trade balance. When China exports goods and services, it accepts the foreign currency, usually U.S. dollars, and holds that currency in reserve. In addition to facilitating trade, most countries, including China, also hold foreign exchange reserves to ensure the stability of their currencies and facilitate other foreign transactions.

Other significant reserves

Even though most of the world left the gold standard in 1971, most countries still retain large gold reserves. The United States, followed by Germany and Italy, held the largest amount of gold reserves worldwide as of December 2018.
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International reserves and foreign currency liquidity in selected countries worldwide as of August 2018 (in billion U.S. dollars)

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Value in billion U.S. dollars
Argentina 52.66
Australia 51.49
Austria 23.82
Brazil *379.44
Canada 81.24
Chile 62.46
China: Hong Kong453.31
China: Mainland*3,395.63
Colombia 52.56
Germany 189.21
Greece 12.53
India *405.87
Ireland 4.51
Japan 1,315.8
Korea, Republic of *402.45
Mexico 176.54
Peru 59.81
Singapore289.48
Spain*71.34
Switzerland*804.78
Thailand*205.55
United Kingdom187.38
United States*124.8
Value in billion U.S. dollars
Argentina 52.66
Australia 51.49
Austria 23.82
Brazil *379.44
Canada 81.24
Chile 62.46
China: Hong Kong453.31
China: Mainland*3,395.63
Colombia 52.56
Germany 189.21
Greece 12.53
India *405.87
Ireland 4.51
Japan 1,315.8
Korea, Republic of *402.45
Mexico 176.54
Peru 59.81
Singapore289.48
Spain*71.34
Switzerland*804.78
Thailand*205.55
United Kingdom187.38
United States*124.8
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by M. Szmigiera, last edited May 13, 2019
Of all the countries in the world, China had, by far, the largest international reserves in August 2018, with 3.40 trillion U.S. dollars in reserves and foreign currency liquidity. Japan was the only other country with over a trillion U.S. dollars in reserves, with a total of 1.32 trillion U.S. dollars.
Why do countries hold reserves?

A simple explanation for China’s accumulation of foreign currency could be its consistently positive and substantial trade balance. When China exports goods and services, it accepts the foreign currency, usually U.S. dollars, and holds that currency in reserve. In addition to facilitating trade, most countries, including China, also hold foreign exchange reserves to ensure the stability of their currencies and facilitate other foreign transactions.

Other significant reserves

Even though most of the world left the gold standard in 1971, most countries still retain large gold reserves. The United States, followed by Germany and Italy, held the largest amount of gold reserves worldwide as of December 2018.
Show more
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