The market where stocks are bought and sold is called the equity market. If the company in question is public, then this trade occurs on the stock exchange, whereas stocks of private companies are traded through dealers, which is known as an over-the-counter market. The New York Stock Exchange is the largest stock exchange operator globally. Meanwhile, private equity is money invested in firms which have not made their initial public offering or IPO. North America was the largest region for fundraising of private equity companies in 2018, followed by Asia and Europe.
The currency market is the market where different currencies traded among entities such as banks, corporations, central banks, investment management firms, hedge funds, retail forex brokers, and investors. Global currency reserves amounted to 11.8 trillion U.S. dollars in 2019. Some of the major currencies traded include the U.S. dollar, the British pound, the Japanese Yen, and Swiss franc. However, the U.S. dollar has been the de facto global reserve currency since the Bretton Woods exchange rate system was established in the 1940s.