Coffee beverages can be produced using dozens of different techniques that stem from every corner of the globe. Most all require the mixing of ground coffee with hot water, followed by a removal of the coffee grounds prior to drinking. Many coffee drinkers then add milk, cream, or a milk substitute and some form of sweetener. In the U.S., many consumers enjoy variations on the standard coffee creamer, such as hazelnut and French vanilla, or seasonal flavors like peppermint and pumpkin.
Fair trade coffee is becoming increasingly popular in the U.S. A fair trade logo signifies that a coffee product was produced and marketed according to standards set by a fair trade labeling organization, the main goal being to confirm that business was not conducted in an exploitative way. Fair trade often costs more than standard coffee. Fair trade labels first appeared in the Netherlands in the late 1980s as an attempt to stabilize a volatile coffee market following a period of overproduction and plummeting prices.
Brazil is the world leader in global coffee production. The country has been the industry leader for the past 150 years thanks to an ideal climate and the large sections of land dedicated to growing. Historically, a few uncharacteristic summer frosts have devastated the yearly Brazilian coffee harvests, causing a doubling in coffee prices worldwide.