Social network Twitter has proven itself especially popular as users are able to run a direct commentary through live-tweeting and direct short-form discussion. Social media buzz based on online user mentions and interactions are a relevant tool in measuring user engagement before, during and after a program has aired. In 2016, the U.S. presidential election created major buzz on social media. Combining Twitter and Facebook, the first debate generated just over 83 million interactions. Donald Trump accounted for the largest share of both Twitter buzz and Facebook buzz during the three presidential debates. In addition to the debates, a quote from Hillary Clinton’s concession speech was the third most retweeted Twitter posts in 2016.
Apart from political events, television series and specials generate strong online user interaction as well. The Grammy Awards was the most popular television special during the 2015/2016 season with 7.64 million tweets during the telecast. The Oscars ranked second as the prestigious award ceremony had an online buzz of 7.22 million tweets in 2016. Other popular television specials include the American Music Awards, iHeartradio Music Awards, and the Golden Globe Awards. Concerning TV shows, AMC’s The Walking Dead was the most popular television series on Twitter during the 2015/2016 season with about 435 thousand tweets per telecast. FOX’s Empire and HBO’s Game of Thrones ranked second and third respectively.
Social media is also a popular tool to follow sports, which proved relevant during the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Rio Olympic Games, both in Brazil. These two events lead the ranking of global media and sporting events with the most Facebook interactions. In 2016, the most-tweeted about sporting event in the United States was, by far, the Super Bowl XLIX. The event created over two billion tweets Twitter impressions during its broadcast and a consumer survey ahead of the Super Bowl in 2017 found that 32 percent of survey respondents were planning to talk about the game on social media while watching it. Considering these events’ reach on social media, advertisers are often looking to capitalize on content-related second screen action by investing heavily on social media advertising and adding social media elements to their ads such as a hashtag.