Located across the Pearl River estuary from Hong Kong, Macao had a population of around 679,600 people as of 2019. The population is spread across a total land area of approximately 33 square kilometers, which makes Macao to one of the most densely populated territories in the world. The total population has been growing for a long time due to immigration mainly from mainland China and other Asian countries. However, the fertility of the population living in Macao is one of the lowest in the world.
Due to the rapid economic growth in the last decade, Macao's unemployment rate has dropped to relatively low levels in recent years. The work force in Macao is mainly employed in gaming services and hotels and restaurants. In respond to the fast growing economy and a shortage of labor, especially in the manufacturing industry, the Macao government has made use of the supply of labor from the neighboring regions and imported labor from mainland China, the Philippines, and India.
Tourism and gambling are the backbone of Macao's economy. The revenue from gaming and gambling in Macao has skyrocketed in the last several years. In 2001, the gaming industry in Macao was liberalized. Several well-known casino operators have entered the market and opened casinos since then. In 2006, Macao became the world's largest gaming market, surpassing Las Vegas. Although an anti-corruption campaign in mainland China significantly dampened the gambling demand since 2014, revenue from gaming and gambling in Macao is still ranging on a very high level and is today roughly six times higher than in Las Vegas.