The plastic bottle, made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET), has become a symbol of plastic itself. Companies such as Indorama Ventures, M & G Chemical, and PetroChina Group lead the PET production capacity. Other plastics, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) , acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) (ABS), and polycarbonates are produced and consumed in large quantities globally as well. In addition to bottles, plastics are used for films, extrusion coating, injection molding, cables, and many other uses. Given their varied utility, plastics demand worldwide is expected to continue increasing for the foreseeable future.
The widespread usage of plastic, especially single use plastics, leads to the widespread existence of plastic waste. Even in developed countries, researchers have found plastic fibers in tap water. Much of this plastic enters the ocean as microplastics, creating ocean gyres that have negative impacts on birds, fish, and other marine life. This unfortunate phenomenon has given rise to an increased push for plastics to be recycled. In 2017, nearly 30 percent of plastic bottles were recycled in the United States. The recycling rate of PET bottles in Japan is over 90 percent, and European Union recycling rates of plastic packaging waste range from 24 to 74 percent. However, as long as the demand continues to increase, the cascading negative impacts of plastic use will be difficult to mitigate.