The change in age structure results primarily from the baby boom following World War II. The population growth slowed down after the 1960‘s, and since then the crude birth rate has fallen from 18.5 to 8.3 per 1,000 inhabitants. Similarly, the fertility rate has steadily declined, reaching an all-time low of 1.35 in 2019. As a result, the number of deaths has surpassed the number of births in the past few years. At the same time, the life expectancy of women has reached around 84.3 years, which is approximately five years more than for Finnish men. Based on current developments, it is estimated that Finland’s population will reach 5.57 million in 2030 and start declining in the following decades.
Finland is one of the most sparsely populated countries in Europe. In 2019, the population density was reported at 18.2 inhabitants per square kilometer. However, most people live in the southern parts of the country. The population density varies between nearly 186 inhabitants per square kilometer in the capital region to only 1.9 inhabitants per square kilometer in Lapland. The majority of Finnish people live in or around a large city, and the depopulation of the countryside has intensified due to the demographic change. Only three regions received migration gain in 2019, whereas most areas suffered population losses.
In terms of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic of 2020, Finland has had less confirmed COVID-19 cases than its Nordic neighboring countries Sweden and Norway. The first confirmed coronavirus (COVID-19) case in Finland was reported in January 2020, but it took well over a month before the epidemic started to spread in the country. The majority of cases have been found among 20 to 59-year-olds, with the most cases reported in the 20-29 age group. Although the COVID-19 pandemic has slowed down after May 2020, the number of new cases has been on the rise again from August 2020.