Demographics of Finland - statistics & facts

Demographic change in Finland has been rapid in recent decades. The Nordic country has one of the world’s fastest ageing populations, and the lengthened life expectancy continues to increase the size of the elderly population for the future. Similar to other countries in the Nordic region, Finland is known for its high quality of life. The life expectancy of the population has risen steadily, but birth rates have been falling at the same time. This has led to a major structural challenge posed by an ageing population, diminished supply of labor, and rising public sector costs.

The change in age structure results primarily from the baby boom following World War II. The population growth slowed down after the 1960‘s, and since then the crude birth rate has fallen from 18.5 to nine per 1,000 inhabitants. Similarly, the fertility rate has steadily declined, reaching an all-time low of 1.46 in 2021. As a result, the number of deaths has surpassed the number of births in the past few years. At the same time, the life expectancy of women has reached around 84.46 years, which is approximately five years more than for Finnish men. Based on current developments, it is estimated that Finland’s population will reach 5.6 million in 2035 and start declining in the following decades.

Finland is one of the most sparsely populated countries in Europe. In 2021, the population density was reported at 18.3 inhabitants per square kilometer. However, most people live in the southern parts of the country. The population density varies between nearly 188 inhabitants per square kilometer in the capital region to only 1.9 inhabitants per square kilometer in Lapland. The majority of Finnish people live in or around a large city, and the depopulation of the countryside has intensified due to the demographic change. Only five regions received migration gain in 2020, whereas most areas suffered population losses.

In terms of the ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, Finland has had less confirmed COVID-19 cases than its Nordic neighboring countries Sweden and Norway. The first confirmed coronavirus (COVID-19) case in Finland was reported in January 2020, but it took well over a month before the epidemic started to spread in the country. The majority of cases have been found among 20 to 59-year-olds, with the most cases reported in the 20-29 age group. Although the COVID-19 pandemic has slowed down after May 2020, the number of new cases has been on the rise again from August 2020. Since August 2021, the numbers declined slowly but increased again in spring 2022.

Interesting statistics

In the following 5 chapters, you will quickly find the 41 most important statistics relating to "Demographics of Finland".


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