In the fiscal year 2022, Japan’s expenditures on research and development (R&D) reached approximately 20.7 trillion Japanese yen. R&D spending increased by percent compared to the previous fiscal year.
Distribution of R&D spending
In recent years, most of the R&D spending in Japan has been used for natural sciences such as physical science, engineering science, agricultural science, and health science. Business enterprises have consistently spent over 70 percent of Japan's overall R&D expenditure, while tertiary education institutions have spent around 20 percent. In terms of research subjects, Japan has invested its financial resources most in life sciences and telecommunications.
As of March 2021, about 908 thousand researchers were employed in Japan, of which around 18 percent were women. The female rate among researchers in the science and technology field is lowest in Japan compared to other OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. To promote women’s participation in science and research, the Japanese government subsidizes research institutions like universities covering the labor costs of female researchers.