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Demographics of Canada - Statistics & Facts

Although Canada is the second largest country in the world after Russia in terms of surface area, its rough climate in the central and northern parts of the country has resulted in a relatively small population. Located in North America, it is composed of ten provinces and three territories, and is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the north by the Arctic Ocean, and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean. It shares the longest border in the world (8,893 kilometers or 5,525 miles) with its southern neighbor, the United States.

A diversified economy that still heavily relies on oil and raw materials

With one of the largest economies in the world, Canada is among the 20 countries with the highest GDP worldwide: it amounted to 1.64 trillion US dollars in 2020. It is also a country with one of the highest per capita income rates in the world. Canada is extremely rich in natural resources such as minerals, oil, natural gas, and forests, and is a major exporter of uranium, nickel, and zinc. However, its economy is highly dependent on the exploitation of natural resources, particularly oil, which accounts for a significant portion of GDP. Although this dependence is slowly fading, industry in general provides many jobs, although the economy is gradually becoming more service-oriented.

Population growth on the rise

The country continues to experience population growth, mainly due to immigration, which has long been one of the main factors of its demographic development: between 2019 and 2020, there were nearly 440,000 more inhabitants in the country, of which more than 284,000 arrived through immigration.

The annual population growth rate stood at 1.09 percent in 2020, a slight decrease compared to the almost steady growth of recent years, with the COVID-19 pandemic that led to the closure of borders being a factor in this slowdown. This rate is still higher than in the United States, as the birth rate is higher in the U.S. and immigration is stronger in Canada.

Growing urban areas

Located on the most urbanized continent in the world, Canada's urbanization rate has been steadily increasing over the past decade. Population growth is indeed concentrated in the major metropolitan areas, such as Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, and Ottawa. These large cities with more than one million inhabitants are home to almost half of the country's total population. The two large western provinces, British Columbia and Alberta, have led the way in population growth for the past two decades. They are catching up with the central provinces of Ontario, the country's most populous province, and Quebec, both of which remain the economic, industrial, cultural, and political heart of Canada.

Interesting statistics

In the following 5 chapters, you will quickly find the 35 most important statistics relating to "Demographics of Canada".


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