European Union migration flow by main routes 2014-2018

This statistic shows the percentage of illegal border-crossings occurring at the four main routes into the European Union from 2014 to 2018. In 2015 the Eastern Mediterranean route accounted for around 48.6 percent of all illegal border-crossings, along with 41.9 percent in the Western Balkans. From 2016 onwards however, there was a significant increase in the percentage of border crossings through the Central Mediterranean route into Italy, and in 2017 this route had the majority of illegal border-crossings. In 2018 the Western Mediterranean route had the highest share of illegal border crossing at 37.9 percent.

Percentage of illegal border-crossings between border-crossing points (BCPs) to the European Union (EU) from 2014 to 2018, by main routes*

Eastern MediterraneanWestern BalkansCentral MediterraneanWestern Mediterranean
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Release date

February 2020



Survey time period

2014 to 2018

Supplementary notes

* Percentages for the four main routes only, Frontex also has four other minor border-crossing points that have been excluded in this statistic.

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Statistics on "Migration routes via Italy to Europe"

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