Nationality of immigrants arriving in the United States 1820-1870

This graph shows the distribution of nationalities among documented immigrants who arrived in the United States between 1820 and 1870. As we can see, over seven million people arrived in the US in this 50 year period, with the majority coming from Ireland, Germany and Britain. The largest groups, by far, were Irish and German, who together made up roughly two thirds of all immigrants to the US during this time. The reasons for this were because of the Irish Potato famine from 1845 to 1849, which resulted in the death or emigration of twenty to twenty five percent of the total Irish population, and a number of internal factors in Germany such as economic migration for farmers affected by industrialization, political/religious asylum, and in order to avoid conscription. One noteworthy exclusion from the information is of those transported to US as slaves, whose information was not recorded in this statistic (although the slave trade was abolished in 1808, the practice continued in the decades that followed).

Number of immigrants who arrived in the United States from 1820 to 1870, by nationality

NationalityNumber of Immigrants
Irish2,700,493
German2,368,483
English and Welsh528,627
British (not specified)544,107
British-American284,491
French245,812
Norwegian and Swedish153,928
Chinese109,502
Scottish84,623
Swiss61,572
Caribbean50,187
Dutch31,118
Italian23,908
Danish23,425
Spanish23,214
Central American (incl.Mexican)21,216
Belgian17,278
Other**34,178
Not Specified248,243
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Source

Release date

July 2019

Region

United States

Survey time period

1820 to 1870

Supplementary notes

*TOTAL - 8270334
**OTHER - South American - 8644, Spanish and Portuguese Islanders - 7570, Portuguese - 4695, Russian - 4045, Polish - 4038, Italian and French Islanders - 2905, Turks and Greeks - 505, Africans - 475, Japanese - 259, Australians - 247, East Indians - 208, Sandwich and Society Islanders - 162, South Sea Islanders and New Zealanders - 119, Cape of Good Hope - 89, Liberian and North Africans - 75, Asian (not specified) - 65, St Helens - 33, Egyptian - 20, Persian - 14, Icelandic - 11
Release date is date of extraction

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