Share of hikikomori among the middle-aged population in Japan 2018

In a survey conducted in 2018, 1.45 percent of Japanese respondents among those aged 40 to 64 were classified as hikikomori (social shut-ins). Based on this number, the study estimated that about 613,000 middle-aged hikikomori exist throughout Japan. The survey was focusing on the middle-aged population because earlier research had shown an increasing percentage of people whose social withdrawal had continued for more than seven years.

Share of people who can be classified as hikikomori (social shut-ins) among people aged 40 to 64 in Japan in 2018

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Release date

June 2019



Survey time period

December 7 to 24, 2018

Number of respondents

3,248 respondents

Age group

40-64 years

Method of interview


Supplementary notes

Original question: "To what extend do you leave your home?"
The percentage given here indicates the share of people whose described situation has continued for more than six months and who could therefore be classified as hikikomori. People who went out for things related to their hobbies were classified as semi-hikikomori, but counted as hikikomori in a broad sense.
Definition of hikikomori: "A condition during which a person for various reasons evades social participation (school attendance (including compulsory education), work (including irregular work), social contacts with people outside of his or her own family) and has for the most part remained inside his or her home for more than six months (or left home without mingling with other people)."

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