Microcephaly and the Zika virus- additional information
The dramatic rise in microcephaly cases in Brazil is believed to be connected with a spreading of the Zika virus in South America in recent years. Microcephaly is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is usually defined as a head circumference that deviates from the mean standards for age and sex which commonly results in severely impaired intellectual development and other neurological dysfunctions such as hyperactivity, convulsions, etc. As of July 2016, Brazil had reported the highest number of microcephaly and/or CNS malformation cases potentially associated with Zika virus infection in the world, with 1, 709 such cases. With the number of travelers from Brazil between September 2014 and August 2015 reaching nearly 2.8 million, the United States had been shown to be one of the countries most at risk of Zika virus infection due to travelers from Brazil. Laboratory-confirmed Zika virus cases in the United States had, as of July 2016, been mostly travel associated, with the state of New York reporting the highest number of travel associated Zika virus infections with 345. However, while all U.S. states had reported zero locally acquired Zika cases, the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico had reported 3, 752 cases of locally-acquired Zika.