Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in the United States, with around 287,850 new cases expected for the year 2022. Typical symptoms of breast cancer include a lump in the breast or armpit, a change in breast size or shape, fluid coming from the nipple, and red peeling skin. Risk factors for breast cancer include genetics, obesity, alcohol consumption, and hormone therapy. The risk of developing breast cancer also increases with age. While the ten-year probability of developing breast cancer among women aged 20 years was 0.1 percent, it was 4.1 percent among women aged 70 years.
Cases and deaths
In 2019, there were estimated to be around 74,800 cases of invasive breast cancer among women aged 60 to 69 years, with an additional 14,500 in situ cases. The rate of breast cancer in the U.S. is higher among non-Hispanic white women than among any other race or ethnicity, yet the mortality rate from breast cancer is highest among non-Hispanic black women. Breast cancer deaths rates have decreased over the past few decades with a rate of 19.7 deaths per 100,000 population in the year 2018 compared to 33.3 deaths per 100,000 population in 1990. Although breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among U.S. women, cancer of the lung and bronchus causes the most cancer-related deaths among this population.
Treatment and survival
Treatment of breast cancer depends on the type and stage at diagnosis, but common treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy. The most common type of treatment for early stage female breast cancer is a combination of breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Survival rates for breast cancer are some of the highest among the different cancer types, with 90 percent of patients surviving five years after diagnosis. An important measure for early detection and treatment are breast cancer screenings. The United States Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that women aged 50 to 74 years receive a mammogram every two years. However, in 2020, only 78 percent of women in the United States reported having a mammogram within the past two years.
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