Energy sector in Indonesia - Statistics & Facts

Indonesia is the world's largest archipelago, consisting of more than 17,000 islands. This poses a challenge for the nation to build its infrastructure. Even so, Indonesia had made significant progress in providing electricity throughout the country over the last decades. Nevertheless, access to electricity still differs greatly among the different islands. Less than 61 percent of households in eastern Indonesia such as East Nusa Tenggara and Papua had access to electricity, making these provinces with the lowest electrification ratios in the nation.

Energy supply in Indonesia mainly relies on fossil fuels

Fossil fuels like oil, gas and carbon are the primary energy supply in Indonesia, while renewable energy, principally hydro and geothermal, made up a small percentage of its energy mix supply. Electricity generation in Indonesia is especially dependent on fossil fuels, with the majority of the electricity coming from coal and natural gas, respectively.

Coal energy supply in Indonesia has risen steadily significant in the last ten years, hundred times more than hydropower energy supply across the nation. Even though key export markets are shifting toward alternative energy sources, the coal energy supply in Indonesia, the world's largest coal exporter, is expected to keep rising in the next decades. Knowing that the country’s renewable energy resources have not been fully explored, the state electricity firm PLN has started to build the country’s biggest hydropower plant (PLTA) in North Kalimantan in 2019, aiming to generate 1,350 megawatts (MW) upon the project’s completion in 2025.

Challenges facing the Indonesian energy sector

Primary energy demand in Indonesia has been increasing more than its average annual rate. Over the past decade, energy consumption per capita has risen steadily. This growth comes largely from the transportation and industrial sectors, which were still heavily dependent on oil. However, Indonesia's oil production has been declining for the past few years. While the investment value in the oil and gas sector in Indonesia is still high, its contribution to the state revenue has been declining.

Mainly due to its energy industries, Indonesia was the world’s fifth-largest emitter of greenhouse gases. After the Paris Agreement in 2015, the Indonesian government pledged in 2017 that no new coal power plants would be built on Java, in a bid to reach the country’s renewables target of 23 percent in the energy mix by 2025. In 2010, East Java was ranked third in greenhouse gas emissions in Indonesia. However, this pledge has been rated “highly insufficient” by Climate Action Tracker (CAT), an independent research project tracking climate policies.

Key figures

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Primary energy supply

Renewable energy

Interesting statistics

In the following 6 chapters, you will quickly find the 31 most important statistics relating to "Energy sector in Indonesia".

Electricity sector in Indonesia

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Energy sector in Indonesia - Statistics & Facts

Indonesia is the world's largest archipelago, consisting of more than 17,000 islands. This poses a challenge for the nation to build its infrastructure. Even so, Indonesia had made significant progress in providing electricity throughout the country over the last decades. Nevertheless, access to electricity still differs greatly among the different islands. Less than 61 percent of households in eastern Indonesia such as East Nusa Tenggara and Papua had access to electricity, making these provinces with the lowest electrification ratios in the nation.

Energy supply in Indonesia mainly relies on fossil fuels

Fossil fuels like oil, gas and carbon are the primary energy supply in Indonesia, while renewable energy, principally hydro and geothermal, made up a small percentage of its energy mix supply. Electricity generation in Indonesia is especially dependent on fossil fuels, with the majority of the electricity coming from coal and natural gas, respectively.

Coal energy supply in Indonesia has risen steadily significant in the last ten years, hundred times more than hydropower energy supply across the nation. Even though key export markets are shifting toward alternative energy sources, the coal energy supply in Indonesia, the world's largest coal exporter, is expected to keep rising in the next decades. Knowing that the country’s renewable energy resources have not been fully explored, the state electricity firm PLN has started to build the country’s biggest hydropower plant (PLTA) in North Kalimantan in 2019, aiming to generate 1,350 megawatts (MW) upon the project’s completion in 2025.

Challenges facing the Indonesian energy sector

Primary energy demand in Indonesia has been increasing more than its average annual rate. Over the past decade, energy consumption per capita has risen steadily. This growth comes largely from the transportation and industrial sectors, which were still heavily dependent on oil. However, Indonesia's oil production has been declining for the past few years. While the investment value in the oil and gas sector in Indonesia is still high, its contribution to the state revenue has been declining.

Mainly due to its energy industries, Indonesia was the world’s fifth-largest emitter of greenhouse gases. After the Paris Agreement in 2015, the Indonesian government pledged in 2017 that no new coal power plants would be built on Java, in a bid to reach the country’s renewables target of 23 percent in the energy mix by 2025. In 2010, East Java was ranked third in greenhouse gas emissions in Indonesia. However, this pledge has been rated “highly insufficient” by Climate Action Tracker (CAT), an independent research project tracking climate policies.

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