The spread of mobile devices like smartphones and tablets has lead to the strong growth of mobile commerce. In the fourth quarter of 2016, mobile e-commerce spending in the United States amounted to 22.7 billion US dollars. The possibilities to shop on mobile devices or specially designated mobile apps are plentiful: online market leaders eBay and Amazon offer designated mobile shopping apps and sites and brick-and-mortar stores such as BestBuy or Target are also catching up. In many physical stores, mobile devices can also be used as payment method by using NFC technologies to scan digital wallets.
Aside from physical goods, other strong drivers of mobile consumer spending are digital content such as mobile apps, mobile games or event tickets. With the increasing affordability of media downloads and streaming, online stores such as Google Play or Apple’s iTunes are able to generate revenue through digital media sales. It is common for mobile gaming apps to generate part of their revenue through virtual content and item sales. Chat apps such as LINE or Kakaotalk have begun to monetize through the sales of stickers and games, all of which are paid through the mobile device they are running on.