Coffee production landscape in Indonesia
Indonesia’s climate is suited for growing coffee, and it is one of the leading agricultural crop exports of the country. The majority of Indonesia's coffee crop planted area were found on the island of Sumatera. Other coffee growing areas include Java, Sulawesi, Flores, and the Bali islands. Almost all of Indonesia’s coffee beans were grown in smallholder estates scattered around the coffee-producing regions, leading to logistical challenges in harvesting and collecting the beans for export.
From Arabica, Robusta, to Kopi Luwak
Indonesia produced mainly Robusta coffee beans, with Arabica beans making up less than a fifth of total production. Robusta beans produce a stronger and more bitter coffee compared to Arabica beans. These beans are usually used to make instant coffee, or in espresso blends to lend a stronger flavor. Another type of coffee produced in Indonesia is kopi luwak or civet coffee, arguably the world’s most expensive coffee. However, the production of kopi luwak is not without controversy, due to concerns for the welfare of the Asian civets involved.