With a total population of more than 325 million people, the United States is the third most populous country in the world behind India and China. Repeated waves of immigration have resulted in an ethnically-diverse population. As in many multi-ethnical societies, racial discrimination has been a problem in the United States. The election of Barack Obama as the first black president of the U.S. marked a historical milestone in the movement towards equality, but race and ethnicity still remain an issue.
The U.S. economy is by far the largest economy in the world according to a country-based GDP ranking. In 2017, U.S. GDP amounted to about 19.49 trillion U.S. dollars. This equals the combined GDPs of the second to fourth largest economies, China, Japan, and Germany. However, it is widely expected that due to its sheer size and rapid growth, China is going to become the world’s largest economy within the next ten to twenty years.
The United States of America is the second-largest exporter of merchandise in the world according to a WTO ranking of the largest exporting countries. The total volume of U.S. exports has vastly grown in the last two decades and amounted to 1.55 trillion U.S. dollars in 2017. The most important export partners of the U.S. are Canada, Mexico, and China who accounted for more than 40 percent of U.S. exports in 2016. The same three countries top the list of the U.S.’s most important import partners, with more than 20 percent of U.S. imports coming from China alone. Statista's 2017 Made-In Country Index found that American products are quite well-liked with a positive reputation all over the world, additionally, U.S. production is mostly associated with "advanced technology" and "high quality".
In 2008, the U.S. economy was hit by a financial crisis and is still affected by some of its consequences. Originating in the U.S. housing/mortgage market, the crisis resulted in a severe shortage of liquidity on financial markets, which brought several financial institutions to the verge of bankruptcy or one step further. The crisis affected economies worldwide and resulted in a global recession. After two years of stagnation and contraction, the U.S. economy bounced back to moderate growth in 2010 with a GDP growth rate of about 2.2 percent. During and shortly after the crisis, the U.S. unemployment rate soared to the highest level since the early 1980s and has yet to return to its pre-recession level. In 2010, the unemployment rate peaked at 9.6 percent compared to 4.6 percent in 2007, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
In 2011, the economic recovery suffered a major setback when the U.S. government had a political row about raising the debt ceiling, with some members of Congress wanting to default on certain debts. A deal was reached to avert the immediate danger of default, but the huge amount of national debt in the U.S. is still a major concern and will most likely stay on the agenda of policy-makers for years to come.
With the election of Donald Trump as President in 2016, global perception of the United States shifted noticeably, as his tenure thus far has been marked by political chaos and behind-the-scenes scandals rather than by significant progress. Trump recently caused a global flop sweat fit when he threatened North Korea and re-opened the age-old discourse about atomic bombs and militarization. Due to his unpredictability and his perceived incompetent behavior, approval rates have plummeted to an all-time low. It remains to be seen whether he is able to restore stability and improve the United States' global standing again during his term, or if his successor will have to pick up the pieces.