Historians' ranking of U.S. presidents 2021

Ranking of U.S. presidents by historians during the C-SPAN Presidential Historians Survey 2021

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Release date



United States

Survey time period

1789 to 2021

Number of respondents

142 respondents

Method of interview

Panel survey

Supplementary notes

Joe Biden has not been included, and Grover Cleveland, who served as the 22nd and 24th U.S. President, has been counted as a single entry.

142 "historians, professors, and other professional observers of the presidency" were asked to rank the 44 U.S. presidents in ten areas of leadership, on a scale of one ("not effective") to ten ("very effective"). The scores were then tabulated and averaged, to give a score out of 100 for each category, and a total score out of 1,000.

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